Peer-reviewed Publications

Ames, B. N., Shigenaga, M. K., and Gold, L. S. (1993). DNA lesions, inducible DNA repair, and cell division: Three key factors in mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. Environ. Health Perspect. 101(Suppl. 5), 35–44.

Butler, W. H. (1996). A review of the hepatic tumours related to mixed-function oxidase induction in the mouse. Toxicol. Pathol. 24, 484–492.

Cohen, S. M., and Ellwein, L. B. (1990). Cell proliferation in carcinogenesis. Science 249, 1007–1011.

Cohen, S.M., Klaunig, J., Meek, M.E., Hill, R.N., Pastoor, T., Lehman-McKeeman, L., Bucher, J., Longfellow, D.G., Seed, J., Dellarco, V., Fenner-Crisp, P. and Patton, D. (2004). Evaluating the human relevance of chemically induced animal tumors. Toxicol. Sci. 78, 181–186.

Cohen, S.M., Meek, M.E., Klaunig, J.E., Patton, D.E., and Fenner-Crisp, P. (2003). The

human relevance of information on carcinogenic mode of action: Overview. Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 33, 581–589.

Glynne-Jones, D., ed. (1999). Piperonyl Butoxide: The Insecticide Synergist. Elsevier Ltd.

Grasso, P., and Hinton, R. H. (1991). Evidence for and possible mechanisms of nongenotoxic carcinogenesis in rodent liver. Chem.-Biol. Interact. 248, 271–290.

Grasso, P., Sharratt, M., and Cohen, A. J. (1991). Role of persistent, nongenotoxic tissue damage in rodent cancer and relevance to humans. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 31, 253–287.

Holsapple, M.P., Pitot, H.C., Cohen, S.H., Boobis, A.R., Klaunig, J.E., Pastoor, T., Dellarco, V.L., Dragan, Y.P. (2006). Mode of action in relevance of rodent liver tumors to human cancer risk. Toxicol. Sci. 89, 51-56.

Loury, D. J., Goldsworthy, T. L., and Butterworth, B. E. (1987). The value of measuringcell replication as a predictive index of tissue-specific tumorigenic potential. In “Nongenotoxic Mechanisms in Carcinogenesis” (B. E. Butterworth and T. J. Slaga, eds.), pp. 119–136. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratories, Cold Spring Harbor, NY (Banbury Report 25).

Selim S, Preiss FJ, Gabriel KL, Jonkman JH, Osimitz TG. (1999). Absorption and mass balance of piperonyl butoxide following an 8-h dermal exposure in human volunteers. Toxicol Lett. 107(1-3):207-17.

Wester RC, Bucks DA, Maibach HI. (1994).  Human in vivo percutaneous absorption of pyrethrin and piperonyl butoxide. Food Chem Toxicol. 32(1):51-3.

Wilson, D. M., Goldsworthy, T. L., Popp, J. A., and Butterworth, B. E. (1992). Evaluation of genotoxicity, pathological lesions, and cell proliferation in livers of rats and mice treated with furan. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 19, 209–222.

Other Reports, etc.

To be added.



EPA (2011). Weight-of-Evidence: Evaluating Results of EDSP Tier 1 Screening to Identify the Need for Tier 2 Testing. Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention.

World Health Organization

WHO Evaluation of PBO. (2011).

WHO Recommendations for Insecticidal Nets. (2012). WHO recommended long-lasting insecticidal mosquito nets

Glossary of Acronyms

EDSP Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
FIFRA Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act
GLP Good Laboratory Practices
JMPR Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues
MFOS Mixed Function Oxidases System
NDETF Non-Dietary Exposure Task Force
NOAEL No Observable Adverse Effect Level
NOEC No Observed Effect Concentration
PBO Piperonyl Butoxide
PBTFII Piperonyl Butoxide Task Force II
U.S. EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency
WHO World Health Organization
WoE Weight of Evidence